© 2017 Appalachian Toyota Round-Up, ATR, ATR ARMY, All Rights Reserved
4x4 101 Over every mountain there is a path, although it may not be seen from the valley. ~Theodore Roethke

Off-Road Vehicle or Off-Highway Vehicle

:is considered to be any type of vehicle which is capable of driving on and off paved or gravel surface.  It is generally characterized by having large tires with deep open treads, a flexible suspension, or even caterpillar tracks. The use of higher clearance and higher traction vehicles enables access on trails and forest roads that have rough and low traction surfaces.

Off-Roading or Wheeling

To be able to drive off the pavement, off-road vehicles need several characteristics: They need to have a low ground pressure, so as not to sink into soft ground, they need ground clearance to not get hung up on obstacles, and they need to keep their wheels on the ground so as not to lose traction.  Wheeled vehicles accomplish this by having a suitable balance of large tires combined with tall and flexible suspension

Trail Tips: 10 Safety Rules for Off-Road Driving

Sep. 17, 2012 By Tom Severin Four-wheeling is one of the more exciting hobbies one can experience. Going off road provides a unique perspective and offers the opportunity to see places you would not otherwise see. It also provides a great challenge, as the terrain is far different from standard roads and freeways on which we are all so accustomed to driving. It’s easy to find yourself in a remote and very hostile environment in just a few hours. Follow these very important rules for a safer and more enjoyable ride. 1. Let Someone Know Let someone know where you will be and when you expect to return. This applies to all trips, not just those in challenging areas. People have gotten stuck or lost in relatively easy terrain. Should something happen and you’re unable to leave the area or call for help, your friends or family will know to contact authorities. 2. The Buddy System Always have at least one other vehicle along. This ensures that you will have transportation out in the event your vehicle becomes stuck or damaged and can’t be fixed there. Plus, the extra vehicle means additional manpower to help with problems 3. Pack Extra Pack survival gear. Even a Sunday drive on the beach can turn sour. Pack the proper gear to get you through the night and to handle medical emergencies that may occur. Extra water is near the top of the list, too. 4. Strap it Down Tie everything down inside the vehicle. Your gear will go flying around if you roll over or lay the vehicle on its side. Loose items become missiles that can injure and kill anyone inside. 5. Buckle Up Everyone needs to wear a seatbelt just like when you drive on paved roads. You and your passengers will get jostled around quite a bit on many of the trails. Plus, the possibility for a rollover or crash exists at any time. The big rock you suddenly hit could cause you or your passengers to go flying out a window. Make sure everyone is belted in. 6. Stay Inside – All of You Arms and legs must remain inside the vehicle. Many trails run through narrow passageways. Any arms or legs hanging outside can get injured of caught on trees, cliff walls or rocks just outside your vehicle. If the vehicle begins to tip your instinct is to put your hand out. There is no way you will be able to stop a vehicle this way. Roll your windows up if you can’t control the urge. Also, make sure no one holds onto the roll bar. Their fingers will get smashed in the event of a roll over.  Hands can also be injured if you drive under low-hanging branches. 7. Take a Break Quit if you become tired. Four-wheeling requires the utmost concentration. Any letdown can lead to an accident and perhaps worse. If you feel fatigued at all, pull over and rest or let someone else drive. Do not force it. 8. E-Brake On When Stopped Lock it down. When driving off-road, you are seldom on level ground. Make sure your vehicle will not roll away from you. When you stop, apply the emergency brake, put the vehicle in park, and turn off the engine. 9. No Hanging Do not hang on a vehicle. If the vehicle gets stuck in a precarious position, do not try to pull it down or otherwise tip it by hand, and absolutely do not climb on the vehicle. Use the proper tools and techniques and always be a safe distance away. A vehicle can and will crush you if given the chance. 10. Show Respect – To the Tools Treat winches and Hi-Lift straps with respect. The straps, clevises, and other pieces are under extreme tension when in use. Inspect all parts before using, and stand clear while you are trying to recover a vehicle. A failure in gear or rigging can be lethal to you and by standers.

4x4 Dictionary

A ABS: Antilock Braking System. AIR DOWN: To lower the air pressure in the tires to improve traction off-road. AIR LOCKER: A brand of locking differential from ARB. It acts like an open differential until it’s actuated by compressed air. Then it completely locks, causing both tires to rotate at the same speed regardless of traction. APPROACH ANGLE: The maximum incline angle that a vehicle can climb without encountering front bumper or undercarriage damage. ARMOR-CLAD: Slang for a vehicle that is equipped with heavy-duty skid-plates for the undercarriage or body protection. B BASKET CASE: An engine or vehicle that is in pieces. BEATER: A thrashed and very ugly truck that’s usually mechanically sound. In some circles, this is used as a derogatory term, but in four-wheeling it can be a term of respect. BEEFING: A general term used to describe modifying a stock part or vehicle to be stronger. An upgraded part or truck can also be referred to as beefed- up. BOG: (1) The large pit of mud at a mud-bog race. (2) Running an engine below its intended rpm range by being in a gear that’s too high for the speed or load. BOMBER:Another word for a beater, although this usually refers to a poorly running beater. BISCUIT: Slang for body bushings used to lift the body of the vehicle from the frame to gain ground clearance. They are also referred to as donuts. BULLETPROOF: When a truck or part is upgraded or modified so that it is extremely strong. C CRAWL RATIO: The lowest gear ratio in a truck, found by multiplying the First-gear ratio times the low-range ratio times the axle ratio. D DOUBLE-LINE: To route the winch cable from the vehicle to a snatch block, then back to the vehicle. This doubles the pulling power of the winch but cuts its speed in half. DROOP: Downward suspension travel. DROPPED PITMAN ARM: An after-market part that extends farther to the steering linkage than the stock arm. It corrects steering geometry by reducing the drag-link angle in relation to the tie rods on lifted 4x4s. A pitman arm connects the steering box to the truck’s steering linkage. F FLAT-TOP: A piston without a dish or dome, although it usually has valve reliefs machined into the top. FULL-FLOATER: A rear end design in which the axles don’t carry the weight of the vehicle. This is the preferred setup for ’wheeling because if the axle breaks, the vehicle can still roll freely. FULLSIZE: Usually the largest pickup truck a manufacturer makes for the public. The term has been used rather loosely in recent years as vehicles have become smaller. A Toyota T100 is called a full-size even though many would argue it is not big enough. G GNARLY: (1) A trail that is extremely difficult. (2) Both a positive and a negative description (depending on the context) used by younger generations. GO-JUICE: Gasoline. GRANNY LOW: An ultra-low First gear in a manual transmission, typically between 4.3:1 and 7.0:1. If Granny can pass you in her walker while you are in First gear, you have a granny-low First gear. GRENADE: To blow up a part on your truck. Trannies, rear-ends, transfer cases, and engines can grenade. This is definitely a bad thing. H HEAVY METAL: Slang for a full-size truck. HIGH-CENTERED: When a vehicle is caught on an obstacle near the center, usually on the frame, and is unable to move. This is more common with stock- height vehicles traveling over rough terrain. HYDRAULIC’D: A nasty occurrence in which the engine sucks water into the cylinders through the intake. Unfortunately, water doesn’t compress well, and the result is usually bent connecting rods and valves, which make the engine unable to turn. K KISS: When a truck lightly hits an object such as a rock, but neither sustains damage, as in, “Did you hit that rock?” “No, I just kissed it.” L LIFT BLOCK: A block placed between the rear axle and leaf springs to gain lift. Lift blocks should never be used on front axles, and such use is illegal in most states. LIFTED: A truck that is raised by either a suspension or a body lift or both. LINE: The positioning and maneuvering of a truck over an obstacle. The line a driver takes can be the difference between success and stuck. LOCKED IN: Manual locking hubs set in the lock position are said to be locked in. LOCKED UP: (1) A 4x4 that has locking differentials at both ends is locked up. (2) A hydraulic’d motor is usually locked up. LOCKER: A differential that allows engine power to be delivered to both wheels, giving maximum traction. This is helpful during situations when one wheel is off the ground. LOW GEARS: Gears with a numerically higher ratio; 4.56 gears are lower than 3.73 gears. M MASSAGED: (1) Modifications usually to an engine or body. (2) Sheet metal damage that occurs from hitting rocks or other obstacles during four-wheeling. MEATS: Tires. Also referred to as donuts, treads, or rubber. Generally used when referring to over sized tires. MONDO: Large, huge, or massive. O OFF CAMBER: When the trail is on a sideways incline, usually very steep. Off-camber trails increase the likelihood of a rollover. OFF-ROAD: A misnomer for driving on established dirt trails. Unfortunately, in recent years this term has become politically incorrect because it implies leaving the trail and bounding through the countryside. The correct term is “off-highway,” but most people (including us) still use off-road to refer to driving on dirt roads. OPEN DIFFERENTIAL: A differential that usually comes stock on 4x4s. It directs power to the wheel with the least resistance to spinning. One-leggers and peg-leggers are slang terms for open diffs. P PAPERWEIGHT: A part that is broken beyond repair. PLUMBING: Any hose on a vehicle, such as the brake lines. PTO: Power Take-Off. An output shaft on the transfer case or transmission that sends engine power to accessories like a PTO winch. A PTO-driven accessory is not very common on noncommercial vehicles. PUMP GAS: 85- to 93-octane gas available at filling stations. PUMPKIN: The center-section of a front or rear differential housing. This can also refer to a removable center-section such as the kind used in a Ford 9- inch or a Toyota rear differential housing. R ROCK CRAWLER: A 4x4 built specifically for maneuvering through rocky terrain. S SHOW TRUCK: A customized truck that is built specifically for competing in shows and for looks. These trucks rarely see use. SNATCH BLOCK: A winching device used to double-line or to change the winch’s direction of pull. It usually consists of a hook, or some other method of attaching the device to an anchor, and a pulley for the winch cable. SUCKING SAND: If you are following a vehicle on a dry dirt road with the windows open, you are sucking sand. SWAMPED: (1) When a vehicle becomes stuck while submarining and fills with water. (2) An engine that has either stalled or hydraulic’d during a water crossing. T TACO’D: A frame or other part such as an axle that has been severely bent, usually when the truck has been jumped too high. TAG: To hit an obstacle with some part of the truck, as in “I tagged my bumper on that ledge.” TAIL GUNNER: The last vehicle in a trail-ride caravan. The tail gunner is usually responsible for making sure everyone finishes the trail. TALL GEARS: Gears with a numerically lower ratio; 3.73:1 gears are taller than 4.56:1 gears. T-CASE: Short for transfer case. A device usually attached directly to the transmission. The transfer case is a gearbox that splits engine power to the front and rear axles. You can select two-wheel-drive or four- wheel-drive high or low range with most transfer cases. THRASHED: When something has been used far beyond its limit. For example, when a truck has been beaten with reckless abandon on a trail it had no business being on in the first place, it is said to have been thrashed. THREE-WHEELING: A term used to describe when one tire has left the ground while ’wheeling. For example, if the driver-side front tire drops into a large enough hole, the passenger-side rear tire will lift off the ground. TRAIL BOSS: The trail leader on a trail ride. TRAILER QUEEN or ROAD QUEEN: t’s a 4x4 that pretends to be trail-ready, but it’s really just a show truck carted around on a trailer or driven only on paved road. TRANNY: Short for transmission. TREE-HUGGER: Derogatory term for an extreme environmentalist; not to be confused with Tree-Saver (see below). TWEAK: (1) Modifying something to enhance performance, usually called tweaking. (2) To incur body or component damage, as in “I tweaked my bumper when I hit that rock.” TREE-SAVER: A nylon strap designed to go around a tree to protect it while it’s being used as an anchor point for winching. This is much better than wrapping the cable around the tree, which ruins the cable and the tree. W WHEEL TRAVEL: The total distance a wheel can travel up and down. As a general rule, the more wheel travel, the better. Y YANK STRAP: A large nylon strap used for pulling out stuck vehicles. Also referred to as a tow strap. From: http://www.fourwheeler.com/how-to/71038-4x4-dictionary-terms/#ixzz3eQXAlY4N Follow them on: @fwmag on Twitter | fourwheelermag on Facebook
Off-Road Checklist, The Basics * First Aid Kit * Basic Personal Essentials (water, food) * Spare Tire, Full Size * Jack and tire iron to change your tire * Tow Strap * Tree Saver * Come-alongs * Basic Tool Kit * Spare Key for vehicle * Leather Gloves * Fire Extinguisher  (mounted & easily accessible) * Flashlights * Trash Bags * Toilet Paper * GPS * Hand Cleaner
Pre-departure Checklist * Plan trip and inform others where your going and when to expect you back * Prepare Tool Kit * Check basics - engine oil, transmission oil, brake fluid, radiator coolant, wiper fluid, air cleaner, fan belts, hoses, belts, seat belts, etc. * Check tire air pressure (air up to recommended pressure for highway driving, air down at trail head, air up prior to trip home) * Check for tire wear or damage * Tighten drive shaft u-bolts * Check and tighten lug bolts * Check for frame cracks * Check brake pads & shoes * Check for loose bolts or nuts throughout vehicle * Grease all fittings (u-joints, steering) * Check gear oils: transfer case/differentials, replace if necessary * Check winch for proper operation, check winch cable for kinks, frays, or damage, straighten winch cable if necessary * Check shocks
The Essential First Aid Kit * Adhesive tape * Antiseptic ointment * Alcohol swabs, individually wrapped * Band-Aids (assorted sizes) * Blanket * Cold pack * Disposable gloves * Gauze pads and roller gauze (assorted sizes) * Hand cleaner * Plastic bags * Scissors and tweezers * Small flashlight and extra batteries * Triangular bandage * Burn-aid gel * Snake bite kit * Disposable emergency blanket * Instant cold pack * Instant hot pack * Medications (personal, enough for a few days) * Additional medications: anti-diarrhea medications, Tylenol (fever reducer), Ibuprofen (inflammation reduction), Benadryl for mild allergic reactions, Epinephrine in the form of an Epi Pen to treat more serious allergic reactions that might otherwise be fatal.

Fire Extinguisher

This should never be an option, but a requirement for all!  If you carry nothing else, you should ALWAYS have access to a fire extinguisher.

Axioms for the off road enthusiast

1. Your instincts are wrong off-road, and you have to learn the correct ways. For example, if you’re going down the hill and the vehicle is sliding, the natural tendency is to step on the brakes. That just locks ‘em up and you slide more. If it’s wet and muddy, you will slide in the direction of off-camber. If you’re driving on a shelf road, you’ll go right off the edge. Learn the proper steps to take, and commit those to memory. 2. Clearance and traction are basic tenets for dirt and rocks. You can get these by applying the correct driving technique and by mechanical means. The Technique comes from your driving skills, as well as your ability to read lines and chart the proper course. Mechanical means includes bigger tires and suspension to lift the body up. Traction is gained through better tires, lockers in the axles, and by airing down. Learn to drive without upgrading the vehicle with mechanical aids. You will develop better technical skills and improve your ability to pick lines. 3. 4 Wheeling is a game of inches. Four wheeling by design involves driving over difficult trails. That’s part of the fun. Even so, we try to minimize the hazards. As you view the trail ahead, pick a route that is most likely to afford traction for all four wheels. A lot of times moving just a few inches in one direction makes all the difference of keeping traction on all wheels. 4. Momentum and flotation are the basic tenets for soft surfaces like sand and mud. Use steady momentum to carry you through soft surfaces. Too often drivers hit the gas too hard or at the wrong time and they end up stuck. Airing down produces a larger footprint for each tire. This spreads the weight over a larger area so you have less weight per square inch. Combined with the proper momentum and driving techniques, this provides the “flotation” we need for soft surfaces. 5. It’s a game of pounds (PSI) too. We air down considerably to drive off road. When you’re in the 10 -12 psi range, being off by 1 psi can make all the difference when you’re going through soft surfaces like sand, mud and snow. Make sure your pressure is just right. 6. Spinning wheels get you in trouble. If you no longer have forward progress and you start to spin your wheels, several things can happen. - If you’re in a situation that’s a little off camber, you’ll drift. You can drift into a much more difficult situation. -  If you’re on soft material, like mud or sand, you’ll bury it. -  On firm ground the vehicle can literally start jumping up and down placing tremendous destructive forces on the drive train each time the wheels come down. 7. The more remote and more difficult the trail, the more prepared you need to be. For an easy trail near town on a Saturday with your buddies, you might get by without spares. Do the same on the Rubicon and it could be a day out to purchase parts and a day back before you can start your repairs. 8. 10 mph is fast off-road. We are not racing and over 10 mph is fast. When you are going fast off-road do not hit the small 5"/6" (or bigger for that matter) rocks embedded in the wash when aired down. You can cut the sidewalls on both tires on the same side before you are able to stop. Avoid them or slow down and ease over. 9. Chaos reigns when someone gets stuck. Everybody has an idea of how to get the driver unstuck - the quicker the better. And everybody tries to help without a plan. That is counterproductive and can be dangerous. Put one person in charge and hold a recovery meeting to plan your strategy. Remember slow is smooth, and smooth is fast. 10. Expect delays on any run. The more vehicles you have, the more likely something is to happen: breakdowns, someone gets stuck or blows a tire bead, riders need bathroom breaks. Assume your trip won’t stay 100% on schedule, so don’t get all wigged out when there is a delay. But groups are not bad. There is safety in numbers. 11. There is an exception to every rule! I couldn't resist adding one more axiom. Sometimes you have to break the rules - like when your life is in danger. Sometimes you break the rule just because - like going alone. The point is there are exceptions but your level of caution needs to go way, way up. Even though Tom Servian list is complied of only 11 axioms, which are considered self-evident and assumed to be true, the sport of 4-wheeling has in addition dozens, even hundreds of rules designed to make you a better driver and to keep you safe.
TAKE ME THERE

The ATR has a firm belief in the philosophy of treading lightly!

We ask everyone to wheel responsibly We’re all judged by how we T.R.E.A.D.
Travel responsibly on designated roads, trails or areas Respect the rights of others, including private property owners, all recreational trail users, campers and others so they can enjoy their recreational activities undistributed. Educate yourself prior to your trip by obtaining travel maps and regulations from public agencies, planing for your trip, taking recreation skill classes and knowing how to operate your equipment safely. Avoid sensitive areas such as meadows, lake shores, wetlands and streams. Stay on designated routes. Do your part by modeling appropriate behavior, leaving the area better than you found it, properly disposing of waste, minimizing the use of fire, avoiding the spread of invasive species and restoring degraded areas. http://www.treadlightly.org/quick-tips-for-responsible-four-wheeling/
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Off-Road Vehicle or Off-Highway Vehicle

:is considered to be any type of vehicle which is capable of driving on and off paved or gravel surface.  It is generally characterized by having large tires with deep open treads, a flexible suspension, or even caterpillar tracks. The use of higher clearance and higher traction vehicles enables access on trails and forest roads that have rough and low traction surfaces.

Off-Roading or Wheeling

To be able to drive off the pavement, off-road vehicles need several characteristics: They need to have a low ground pressure, so as not to sink into soft ground, they need ground clearance to not get hung up on obstacles, and they need to keep their wheels on the ground so as not to lose traction.  Wheeled vehicles accomplish this by having a suitable balance of large tires combined with tall and flexible suspension

Fire Extinguisher

This should never be an option, but a requirement for all!  If you carry nothing else, you should ALWAYS have access to a fire extinguisher.
4x4 101 Over every mountain there is a path, although it may not be seen from the valley. ~Theodore Roethke

© 2017 Appalachian Toyota Round-Up, ATR, ATR Army, All Rights Reserved

Trail Tips: 10 Safety Rules for Off-Road Driving

Sep. 17, 2012 By Tom Severin Four-wheeling is one of the more exciting hobbies one can experience. Going off road provides a unique perspective and offers the opportunity to see places you would not otherwise see. It also provides a great challenge, as the terrain is far different from standard roads and freeways on which we are all so accustomed to driving. It’s easy to find yourself in a remote and very hostile environment in just a few hours. Follow these very important rules for a safer and more enjoyable ride. 1. Let Someone Know Let someone know where you will be and when you expect to return. This applies to all trips, not just those in challenging areas. People have gotten stuck or lost in relatively easy terrain. Should something happen and you’re unable to leave the area or call for help, your friends or family will know to contact authorities. 2. The Buddy System Always have at least one other vehicle along. This ensures that you will have transportation out in the event your vehicle becomes stuck or damaged and can’t be fixed there. Plus, the extra vehicle means additional manpower to help with problems 3. Pack Extra Pack survival gear. Even a Sunday drive on the beach can turn sour. Pack the proper gear to get you through the night and to handle medical emergencies that may occur. Extra water is near the top of the list, too. 4. Strap it Down Tie everything down inside the vehicle. Your gear will go flying around if you roll over or lay the vehicle on its side. Loose items become missiles that can injure and kill anyone inside. 5. Buckle Up Everyone needs to wear a seatbelt just like when you drive on paved roads. You and your passengers will get jostled around quite a bit on many of the trails. Plus, the possibility for a rollover or crash exists at any time. The big rock you suddenly hit could cause you or your passengers to go flying out a window. Make sure everyone is belted in. 6. Stay Inside – All of You Arms and legs must remain inside the vehicle. Many trails run through narrow passageways. Any arms or legs hanging outside can get injured of caught on trees, cliff walls or rocks just outside your vehicle. If the vehicle begins to tip your instinct is to put your hand out. There is no way you will be able to stop a vehicle this way. Roll your windows up if you can’t control the urge. Also, make sure no one holds onto the roll bar. Their fingers will get smashed in the event of a roll over. Hands can also be injured if you drive under low-hanging branches. 7. Take a Break Quit if you become tired. Four-wheeling requires the utmost concentration. Any letdown can lead to an accident and perhaps worse. If you feel fatigued at all, pull over and rest or let someone else drive. Do not force it. 8. E-Brake On When Stopped Lock it down. When driving off-road, you are seldom on level ground. Make sure your vehicle will not roll away from you. When you stop, apply the emergency brake, put the vehicle in park, and turn off the engine. 9. No Hanging Do not hang on a vehicle. If the vehicle gets stuck in a precarious position, do not try to pull it down or otherwise tip it by hand, and absolutely do not climb on the vehicle. Use the proper tools and techniques and always be a safe distance away. A vehicle can and will crush you if given the chance. 10. Show Respect – To the Tools Treat winches and Hi-Lift straps with respect. The straps, clevises, and other pieces are under extreme tension when in use. Inspect all parts before using, and stand clear while you are trying to recover a vehicle. A failure in gear or rigging can be lethal to you and by standers.
Off-Road Checklist, The Basics * First Aid Kit * Basic Personal Essentials (water, food) * Spare Tire, Full Size * Jack and tire iron to change your tire * Tow Strap * Tree Saver * Come-alongs * Basic Tool Kit * Spare Key for vehicle * Leather Gloves * Fire Extinguisher  (mounted & easily accessible) * Flashlights * Trash Bags * Toilet Paper * GPS * Hand Cleaner
Pre-departure Checklist * Plan trip and inform others where your going and when to expect you back * Prepare Tool Kit * Check basics - engine oil, transmission oil, brake fluid, radiator coolant, wiper fluid, air cleaner, fan belts, hoses, belts, seat belts, etc. * Check tire air pressure (air up to recommended pressure for highway driving, air down at trail head, air up prior to trip home) * Check for tire wear or damage * Tighten drive shaft u-bolts * Check and tighten lug bolts * Check for frame cracks * Check brake pads & shoes * Check for loose bolts or nuts throughout vehicle * Grease all fittings (u-joints, steering) * Check gear oils: transfer case/differentials, replace if necessary * Check winch for proper operation, check winch cable for kinks, frays, or damage, straighten winch cable if necessary * Check shocks
The Essential First Aid Kit * Adhesive tape * Antiseptic ointment * Alcohol swabs, individually wrapped * Band-Aids (assorted sizes) * Blanket * Cold pack * Disposable gloves * Gauze pads and roller gauze (assorted sizes) * Hand cleaner * Plastic bags * Scissors and tweezers * Small flashlight and extra batteries * Triangular bandage * Burn-aid gel * Snake bite kit * Disposable emergency blanket * Instant cold pack * Instant hot pack * Medications (personal, enough for a few days) * Additional medications: anti-diarrhea medications, Tylenol (fever reducer), Ibuprofen (inflammation reduction), Benadryl for mild allergic reactions, Epinephrine in the form of an Epi Pen to treat more serious allergic reactions that might otherwise be fatal.

4x4 Dictionary

A ABS: Antilock Braking System. AIR DOWN: To lower the air pressure in the tires to improve traction off-road. AIR LOCKER: A brand of locking differential from ARB. It acts like an open differential until it’s actuated by compressed air. Then it completely locks, causing both tires to rotate at the same speed regardless of traction. APPROACH ANGLE: The maximum incline angle that a vehicle can climb without encountering front bumper or undercarriage damage. ARMOR-CLAD: Slang for a vehicle that is equipped with heavy-duty skid-plates for the undercarriage or body protection. B BASKET CASE: An engine or vehicle that is in pieces. BEATER: A thrashed and very ugly truck that’s usually mechanically sound. In some circles, this is used as a derogatory term, but in four-wheeling it can be a term of respect. BEEFING: A general term used to describe modifying a stock part or vehicle to be stronger. An upgraded part or truck can also be referred to as beefed-up. BOG: (1) The large pit of mud at a mud-bog race. (2) Running an engine below its intended rpm range by being in a gear that’s too high for the speed or load. BOMBER:Another word for a beater, although this usually refers to a poorly running beater. BISCUIT: Slang for body bushings used to lift the body of the vehicle from the frame to gain ground clearance. They are also referred to as donuts. BULLETPROOF: When a truck or part is upgraded or modified so that it is extremely strong. C CRAWL RATIO: The lowest gear ratio in a truck, found by multiplying the First-gear ratio times the low-range ratio times the axle ratio. D DOUBLE-LINE: To route the winch cable from the vehicle to a snatch block, then back to the vehicle. This doubles the pulling power of the winch but cuts its speed in half. DROOP: Downward suspension travel. DROPPED PITMAN ARM: An after-market part that extends farther to the steering linkage than the stock arm. It corrects steering geometry by reducing the drag-link angle in relation to the tie rods on lifted 4x4s. A pitman arm connects the steering box to the truck’s steering linkage. F FLAT-TOP: A piston without a dish or dome, although it usually has valve reliefs machined into the top. FULL-FLOATER: A rear end design in which the axles don’t carry the weight of the vehicle. This is the preferred setup for ’wheeling because if the axle breaks, the vehicle can still roll freely. FULLSIZE: Usually the largest pickup truck a manufacturer makes for the public. The term has been used rather loosely in recent years as vehicles have become smaller. A Toyota T100 is called a full-size even though many would argue it is not big enough. G GNARLY: (1) A trail that is extremely difficult. (2) Both a positive and a negative description (depending on the context) used by younger generations. GO-JUICE: Gasoline. GRANNY LOW: An ultra-low First gear in a manual transmission, typically between 4.3:1 and 7.0:1. If Granny can pass you in her walker while you are in First gear, you have a granny-low First gear. GRENADE: To blow up a part on your truck. Trannies, rear-ends, transfer cases, and engines can grenade. This is definitely a bad thing. H HEAVY METAL: Slang for a full-size truck. HIGH-CENTERED: When a vehicle is caught on an obstacle near the center, usually on the frame, and is unable to move. This is more common with stock-height vehicles traveling over rough terrain. HYDRAULIC’D: A nasty occurrence in which the engine sucks water into the cylinders through the intake. Unfortunately, water doesn’t compress well, and the result is usually bent connecting rods and valves, which make the engine unable to turn. K KISS: When a truck lightly hits an object such as a rock, but neither sustains damage, as in, “Did you hit that rock?” “No, I just kissed it.” L LIFT BLOCK: A block placed between the rear axle and leaf springs to gain lift. Lift blocks should never be used on front axles, and such use is illegal in most states. LIFTED: A truck that is raised by either a suspension or a body lift or both. LINE: The positioning and maneuvering of a truck over an obstacle. The line a driver takes can be the difference between success and stuck. LOCKED IN: Manual locking hubs set in the lock position are said to be locked in. LOCKED UP: (1) A 4x4 that has locking differentials at both ends is locked up. (2) A hydraulic’d motor is usually locked up. LOCKER: A differential that allows engine power to be delivered to both wheels, giving maximum traction. This is helpful during situations when one wheel is off the ground. LOW GEARS: Gears with a numerically higher ratio; 4.56 gears are lower than 3.73 gears. M MASSAGED: (1) Modifications usually to an engine or body. (2) Sheet metal damage that occurs from hitting rocks or other obstacles during four-wheeling. MEATS: Tires. Also referred to as donuts, treads, or rubber. Generally used when referring to over sized tires. MONDO: Large, huge, or massive. O OFF CAMBER: When the trail is on a sideways incline, usually very steep. Off-camber trails increase the likelihood of a rollover. OFF-ROAD: A misnomer for driving on established dirt trails. Unfortunately, in recent years this term has become politically incorrect because it implies leaving the trail and bounding through the countryside. The correct term is “off-highway,” but most people (including us) still use off-road to refer to driving on dirt roads. OPEN DIFFERENTIAL: A differential that usually comes stock on 4x4s. It directs power to the wheel with the least resistance to spinning. One-leggers and peg-leggers are slang terms for open diffs. P PAPERWEIGHT: A part that is broken beyond repair. PLUMBING: Any hose on a vehicle, such as the brake lines. PTO: Power Take-Off. An output shaft on the transfer case or transmission that sends engine power to accessories like a PTO winch. A PTO-driven accessory is not very common on noncommercial vehicles. PUMP GAS: 85- to 93-octane gas available at filling stations. PUMPKIN: The center-section of a front or rear differential housing. This can also refer to a removable center-section such as the kind used in a Ford 9-inch or a Toyota rear differential housing. R ROCK CRAWLER: A 4x4 built specifically for maneuvering through rocky terrain. S SHOW TRUCK: A customized truck that is built specifically for competing in shows and for looks. These trucks rarely see use. SNATCH BLOCK: A winching device used to double-line or to change the winch’s direction of pull. It usually consists of a hook, or some other method of attaching the device to an anchor, and a pulley for the winch cable. SUCKING SAND: If you are following a vehicle on a dry dirt road with the windows open, you are sucking sand. SWAMPED: (1) When a vehicle becomes stuck while submarining and fills with water. (2) An engine that has either stalled or hydraulic’d during a water crossing. T TACO’D: A frame or other part such as an axle that has been severely bent, usually when the truck has been jumped too high. TAG: To hit an obstacle with some part of the truck, as in “I tagged my bumper on that ledge.” TAIL GUNNER: The last vehicle in a trail-ride caravan. The tail gunner is usually responsible for making sure everyone finishes the trail. TALL GEARS: Gears with a numerically lower ratio; 3.73:1 gears are taller than 4.56:1 gears. T-CASE: Short for transfer case. A device usually attached directly to the transmission. The transfer case is a gearbox that splits engine power to the front and rear axles. You can select two-wheel-drive or four-wheel-drive high or low range with most transfer cases. THRASHED: When something has been used far beyond its limit. For example, when a truck has been beaten with reckless abandon on a trail it had no business being on in the first place, it is said to have been thrashed. THREE-WHEELING: A term used to describe when one tire has left the ground while ’wheeling. For example, if the driver-side front tire drops into a large enough hole, the passenger-side rear tire will lift off the ground. TRAIL BOSS: The trail leader on a trail ride. TRAILER QUEEN or ROAD QUEEN: t’s a 4x4 that pretends to be trail- ready, but it’s really just a show truck carted around on a trailer or driven only on paved road. TRANNY: Short for transmission. TREE-HUGGER: Derogatory term for an extreme environmentalist; not to be confused with Tree-Saver (see below). TWEAK: (1) Modifying something to enhance performance, usually called tweaking. (2) To incur body or component damage, as in “I tweaked my bumper when I hit that rock.” TREE-SAVER: A nylon strap designed to go around a tree to protect it while it’s being used as an anchor point for winching. This is much better than wrapping the cable around the tree, which ruins the cable and the tree. W WHEEL TRAVEL: The total distance a wheel can travel up and down. As a general rule, the more wheel travel, the better. Y YANK STRAP: A large nylon strap used for pulling out stuck vehicles. Also referred to as a tow strap. From: http://www.fourwheeler.com/how-to/71038-4x4-dictionary-terms/#ixzz3eQXAlY4N Follow them on: @fwmag on Twitter | fourwheelermag on Facebook

Axioms for the off

road enthusiast

1. Your instincts are wrong off-road, and you have to learn the correct ways. For example, if you’re going down the hill and the vehicle is sliding, the natural tendency is to step on the brakes. That just locks ‘em up and you slide more. If it’s wet and muddy, you will slide in the direction of off-camber. If you’re driving on a shelf road, you’ll go right off the edge. Learn the proper steps to take, and commit those to memory. 2. Clearance and traction are basic tenets for dirt and rocks. You can get these by applying the correct driving technique and by mechanical means. The Technique comes from your driving skills, as well as your ability to read lines and chart the proper course. Mechanical means includes bigger tires and suspension to lift the body up. Traction is gained through better tires, lockers in the axles, and by airing down. Learn to drive without upgrading the vehicle with mechanical aids. You will develop better technical skills and improve your ability to pick lines. 3. 4 Wheeling is a game of inches. Four wheeling by design involves driving over difficult trails. That’s part of the fun. Even so, we try to minimize the hazards. As you view the trail ahead, pick a route that is most likely to afford traction for all four wheels. A lot of times moving just a few inches in one direction makes all the difference of keeping traction on all wheels. 4. Momentum and flotation are the basic tenets for soft surfaces like sand and mud. Use steady momentum to carry you through soft surfaces. Too often drivers hit the gas too hard or at the wrong time and they end up stuck. Airing down produces a larger footprint for each tire. This spreads the weight over a larger area so you have less weight per square inch. Combined with the proper momentum and driving techniques, this provides the “flotation” we need for soft surfaces. 5. It’s a game of pounds (PSI) too. We air down considerably to drive off road. When you’re in the 10 - 12 psi range, being off by 1 psi can make all the difference when you’re going through soft surfaces like sand, mud and snow. Make sure your pressure is just right. 6. Spinning wheels get you in trouble. If you no longer have forward progress and you start to spin your wheels, several things can happen. - If you’re in a situation that’s a little off camber, you’ll drift. You can drift into a much more difficult situation. -  If you’re on soft material, like mud or sand, you’ll bury it. -  On firm ground the vehicle can literally start jumping up and down placing tremendous destructive forces on the drive train each time the wheels come down. 7. The more remote and more difficult the trail, the more prepared you need to be. For an easy trail near town on a Saturday with your buddies, you might get by without spares. Do the same on the Rubicon and it could be a day out to purchase parts and a day back before you can start your repairs. 8. 10 mph is fast off-road. We are not racing and over 10 mph is fast. When you are going fast off-road do not hit the small 5"/6" (or bigger for that matter) rocks embedded in the wash when aired down. You can cut the sidewalls on both tires on the same side before you are able to stop. Avoid them or slow down and ease over. 9. Chaos reigns when someone gets stuck. Everybody has an idea of how to get the driver unstuck - the quicker the better. And everybody tries to help without a plan. That is counterproductive and can be dangerous. Put one person in charge and hold a recovery meeting to plan your strategy. Remember slow is smooth, and smooth is fast. 10. Expect delays on any run. The more vehicles you have, the more likely something is to happen: breakdowns, someone gets stuck or blows a tire bead, riders need bathroom breaks. Assume your trip won’t stay 100% on schedule, so don’t get all wigged out when there is a delay. But groups are not bad. There is safety in numbers. 11. There is an exception to every rule! I couldn't resist adding one more axiom. Sometimes you have to break the rules - like when your life is in danger. Sometimes you break the rule just because - like going alone. The point is there are exceptions but your level of caution needs to go way, way up. Even though Tom Servian list is complied of only 11 axioms, which are considered self-evident and assumed to be true, the sport of 4-wheeling has in addition dozens, even hundreds of rules designed to make you a better driver and to keep you safe.

The ATR has a firm belief in the

philosophy of treading lightly!

We ask everyone to wheel responsibly We’re all judged by how we T.R.E.A.D. Travel responsibly on designated roads, trails or areas Respect the rights of others, including private property owners, all recreational trail users, campers and others so they can enjoy their recreational activities undistributed. Educate yourself prior to your trip by obtaining travel maps and regulations from public agencies, planing for your trip, taking recreation skill classes and knowing how to operate your equipment safely. Avoid sensitive areas such as meadows, lake shores, wetlands and streams. Stay on designated routes. Do your part by modeling appropriate behavior, leaving the area better than you found it, properly disposing of waste, minimizing the use of fire, avoiding the spread of invasive species and restoring degraded areas. http://www.treadlightly.org/quick-tips-for- responsible-four-wheeling/
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